Saturday, August 24, 2013

skin care talk

Skin Structure

The skin forms the largest organ of the body, accounting for about 16% of the body weight of a person.

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 The skin performs many vital roles as both barrier and as adjusted from the outside world and the controlled environment inside the body.
Internal body temperature is controlled by several processes, including the combined actions between the production of sweat and blood flow rate in the network of vessels in the skin.

In extreme cold conditions the skin blood flow is significantly reduced, retaining heat within the body and preserving the flow of warm blood to the vital organs of the chest and abdomen and also in the brain.

The skin and fat layer under the skin acts as a good thermal insulators.
When the body is found in a hot environment or when heat is generated by muscle activity, blood vessels in the skin dilate, can cause increased blood flow to one-third of blood pumped by the heart. In this way the skin becomes a heat sink. Evaporation of sweat from the skin greatly increase heat loss rate from the body.

The physical structure of the skin prevents the penetration of hazardous chemicals and invasive microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.
It also provides resistance to trauma, protecting sensitive tissues underneath. At the same time, however, needs to be supple skin and be able to stretch to accommodate movement.

Skin exposed to sunlight is the main source of vitamin D in the body, vitamin essential for the growth and maintenance of bone health. Extensive nerve network in the skin constantly send information to the brain about the environment. In this way we are, on the one hand warned the extreme temperatures or other harmful threats, on the other hand can reach the most powerful way of offering quiet and pleasant sensations.

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 It emphasizes on how the skin looks, especially in our modern society. Medical conditions that affect the skin can have marked effects not only on the general well being of the person, but also on how they interact with others, self-esteem and the type of entertainment that you can enjoy. Consequences of skin disorders such as rashes and itching may be obvious to others, and others, such as the psychological impact may be more subtle, though equally important.

Skin layers
The skin has two main layers:
- Epidermis
- Dermis
Subcutaneous fat layer is a layer that sits under the skin ("subcutaneously"). Thickness can vary considerably from person to person depending on body weight, being better represented in overweight people.

The epidermis is the outermost layer. In most parts of the body epidermis measuring about 0.1 mm thick, but on the palms and soles may be 1 mm thick or more. The main cell of the skin, called the epidermis forming keratinocyte because it produces a tough protein called keratin. Keratin is also the main protein in hair and nails.
It gives skin strength and physical aggression is impenetrable to water.
Keratinocytes appear in the deep layer of the epidermis and new cells are constantly being produced. So the older cells migrate to the skin surface where at some point will be removed. Normally it takes about 60 days for a new cell to migrate to the surface and be removed. This results in skin scales and it is absolutely normal for a person to lose this way about a gram of skin per day. A proportion of dust that we aspire in the house is made up of these dead skin cells.

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Keratinocytes change their shape and size of square cells when they are at the epidermis gradually become flattened when I get to the surface, at which point they lost and the internal structure. In healthy skin the cell surface are placed closely side by side in a bunk, which contributes to function.

The dermis lies immediately below the epidermis and is about four times thicker. It contains many specialized tissues and support blood vessels, nerves, roots of hair and sweat glands.
The dermis is composed of other types of proteins, especially collagen and elastin, which gives strength and flexibility. With age it is normal for these proteins to be further reduced, contributing to the appearance of fragile skin in older people. Some medications, especially corticosteroids also have a slimming effect collagen fibers, causing long-term thinning of the skin and a predisposition to bruising (bruises).
The hair comes from a root-like structure called follicle found in the deep dermis. Hair crosses dermis and epidermis to reach the skin. Throughout each of the hair follicle is attached to a small gland that produces a special kind of sweat that covers oily hair. In deep dermis there are many different types of sweat glands in the skin that are connected by narrow ducts, spiral-twisted routinely are called "pores" skin.


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There are several types of sensors in the skin that have different functions. The simplest are free nerve endings and are similar to the bare wires of an electrical circuit. They detect pain, temperature and itch.
Other more complex structures detects pressure or vibration. The distribution of nerves in the skin is not uniform, the highest density is found on the hands, face and genital region.
Effect of skin diseases in these areas is therefore increased sensitivity multiplied with sensations caused by inflammation.

Blood vessels

Blood vessels serving the skin generally take the form of microscopic strands that penetrate deep layer of larger vessels from each coil serving a small area of ​​skin.
Blood vessel size in this spirit is regulated by nerve impulses that come through nerves that accompany them. Thus, temperature control, it is possible for them to widen, increasing blood flow and causing excessive heat loss.
If a person is cold or exposed to a cold environment when the blood vessels in the skin causes decreased blood flow through the skin and body heat conservation. All this activity occurs automatically control complex feedback systems involving temperature sensors in the skin, nervous system and brain.

The immune system and skin

Besides physical protection function that meets the skin are specialized immune system cells in the epidermis and dermis.
Some of these cells detect the invasion of foreign proteins such as bacteria or viruses and other cells have the function to destroy and remove such material.

Hair and nails

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The human species does not require long and thick hair to keep them warm.
Although scalp hair provides protection from potential adverse effects of ultraviolet rays on the skin scalp hair generally has a protective function or reduced insulation.
Although hair loss is a common symptom in eczema, scalp involvement is quite frequent. It usually takes the form of excessive scaling (dandruff).

Fungal infections of the scalp are very common in the general population and should be differentiated from type eczematous scaling as treatment with anti-fungal shampoo is usually effective.
In eczema nails may become due to the effect of polishing gloss given excessive scratching, but when eczema affects the fingers, the nails become stiff and thickened.

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